Karakorum city ruin
Temujin (Chinggis khaan) unifed Mongolian nations and ruled the territory has extended to northwards Baikal lake, to southwards Great Wall, to westwards Irtysh river (nowadays Kazakhstan) , to eastwards Khalkha river (nowadays Mongolian eastern border). The Karakorum city has established in 1220 in Orkhon Valley by Chinggis khaan’s decree. It has been Mongol Empire’s center of administration, trade, craft and culture, besides that Karakorum was the crossroads of the Silk road, which was connecting East And West between 1220-1260.
During this period, Karakorum city has been played the role of the world’s center , which were linking world’s culture and gathering place Asian and Europian and Arabic travelers, officials, dignitaries and scientists. In Karakorum there were about 15 Buddist temples, Christian churches and Muslim mosques. World’s 3 major religions missionaries had been carried their activities in Karakorum city. In 1254, Munkh Emperor invited these three religion’s delegates in Karakorum and they held world’s first theory debate of these 3 religions.
In 1234, Ugudei Emperor has built “Perfect Peace” palace as a symbol of Mongol Empires’s prosperity and dignity. In front of the “Perfect Peace” palace, there was a famous “Silver tree” fountain designed by French skilled artisan Guillaume Bouchier. French King Louis IX’s envoy William Rubruck has reached in 1254 in Karakorum, and he described about the silver tree in his travel report. According to Rubruck report, there were an angel blowing a bugle on the top of the silver tree. The branches and leaves, fruits all were made of silver and on the foot of the tree there were 4 silver lions. When the banquet starts, the angel blows the bugle and 4 types of Mongolians favorite drinks, such as koumiss (fermented mare’s milk), wine, liquor, were run from the 4 lion’s mouth.
Many skilled workers from United Kingdom, Hungary, Tibet, Nepal, Persia, China, Korea has contributed to construct and work the Karakorum’s architects. By the excavation of Karakorum city ruin, there were found Pharaoh’s mask of, Arabian coins, metal, leather goods, weapons, copper as well, such as transportation equipment, silver, a number of archaeological findings. According to these findings, it can be seemed that the metal working has developed successgully. Khubilai Emperor has moved the capital city to Beijing in 1260. Then, Ming dynasty’s army has attacked th Karakorum in 1380 and in 1410. After these 2 attacks, Karakorum has completely collapsed.