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2015.02.03

Sounthern Mongolia

South gobi. Gobi is a Mongolian word, it means very vast dry place. Gobi desert covers part of southern Mongolian part and of northern and northwestern China. It is the biggest desert region in Asia and 5th biggest desert region in the world. It says, that the Himalaya’s high mountain range blocks rain-carrying clouds from Indian Ocean to Gobi region. That’s why, in gobi region rain is less and average rain fall is only 195 mm in a year. The climate is very extreme, the average temperatrure is +30º in summer and -40º in winter. But, there are many kinds of rare plants and rare animals, such as wild horses, wild sheep, ibex, wild camels, black-tailed gazelle. Over 250 species of plant grows in this region including medicinal plants and trees.
Southgobi is the largest province in Mongolia, but has a population density of 0.3 persons per square km. Also it is home of two-humped Bactrian camels.
It is also known as a global excavation sites of dinosaur fossils. American paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews first discovered fossil beds of dinosaur eggs in Bayanzag in 1922. Khermen Tsav is the most famous place with its findings of complete skeletons of different kinds of dinosaurs. These places calls many adventure seekers and explorers to the gobi.

Khongoriin els. The one of the most attractive place is Khongoriin Els, which is the biggest sand dune in gobi. The dune’s total length is over 130 km and in some places the width extends about 3-5 km and the average height is about 180 meters. There is a small oasis near the dune, which calls Khongoriin Gol. In Khongoriin gol oasis, there is a small river with dark green banks with beautiful flowers. Tourists can enjoy the sandboarding and the camel riding here.

Govi gurvan saikhan national park. Gobi Gurvan Saikhan means Three beauties of Gobi, which says East, West and Middle Saikhan mountains. The National park was established in 1965, located in 45 km from the Dalanzadgad city and covering an area nearly 2 million hectares. A number of rare plants and animals inhabit in the park, including elusive snow leopard, wild sheep, ibex and wild camel and gobi bear mazaalai. There are many attractive destinations in this park, such as Yoliin Am (Vulture Gorge), Bayanzag (Flamming cliffs), Khongorin els sand dune, Khermen Tsav, Dungenee canyon. Besides its spectacular natural beauty, it contains over 200 species of birds, including Mongolian grand jay, houbara bustard, greater sand plover, horned lark, desert wheatear and desert warbler.

Vulture gorge. Vulture gorge is one of the most beautiful places in the national park. It is a narrow rock canyon and even in the late of july you can see the thick layer of ice in the canyon. Small stream flows in the canyon and during the winter time, it builds the thick layer of ice. The rock cliffs of canyon blocks sunlight and the ice remains throughout the year. There is a natural history museum of gobi at the entrance of the Vulture gorge.

Bayanzag. Bayanzag locates in 100 km northwest from Dalanzadgad city. This place if famous y its paleontological finds. In 1922 American paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews found here the first dinosaur nest of eggs and skeleton of 70 million years ago. Andrews gave the name of “Flamming cliffs” to Bayanzag. The hills look like burning hills when sun sets, because of its red sandstone. There is picturesque saxaul forest in the north of Bayanzag. Many rare archaeological and paleontological finds frm Bayanzag, now being exhibited in Natural History Museum of USA.

Khermen tsav. Khermen tsav is famous paleontological site, locates 450 km west from Dalanzadgad city. This is a huge precipice, which continues about 10 km and it has 2 entrances. Not easy to reach there and there is no water resourse and nobody live there. Mongolian and Russian paleontoligal expedition found here many species of dinosaurs, insects, mammals, birds, turtles, crocodiles and plants. In summer, day temperature reaches +60ºC. This is the remarkable homeland of dinosaurs.

Dornogobi. Dorngovi province’s Sainshand town is situated in south east 460 km from capital city Ulaanbaatar. Borders with China for 600 km. The Trans-Mongolian railway passes through this town. Population is about 36000 people and now it is increasing, because of planning to build an industrial park in Sainshand. The mineral resourses are rich, such as oil, copper, fluorite, coal, uranium. Also, this is the well-known as the birthplace of 5th Noyon Hutagt Danzanravjaa (Mongolian Buddist noble saint) (1803-1856). There are many tourist attractive destinations, such as Danzanravjaa’s museum, Black mountain, which fulfill people’s wish, 35 m high Ancient stupa and the biggest power spot Shambala (mythical kingdom). It says that in Shambala concentrated world’s energy from the underground, and from space.

Khamariin khiid. The Khamar monastery was established in 1822 by 19th century’s famous an enlightenment thinker, educator, poet and 5th noble saint Noyon Hutagt Danzanravjaa. The Monastery was an important centre of the Buddist “red sect”. Khamar Monastery consisted of more than eighty temples and resident population of over five hundred lamas. The nearby “Khuukhdiin datsan” (children’s college) offered basic and vocation, artistic training for local children, who often went on to become singers and dancers, painters, sculptors, and other artists at the Monastery or in its theatre company. Also, in Khamar Monastery there were a public library, museum, poetry recital hall, and other facilities, making it an important regional cultural centre. He composed and performed an offering ceremony of “Mask dance”, built a story singign temple for performing the “Moon cuckoo play”. The monastery was completely destroyed by the military in 1938 during Mongolia’s religious purge. Khamar Monastery was reestablished in 1990, with the support of the local people and religious community.

Dambadarjaa museum. In 1937, when orders were given to destroy Khamar Monastery and all of its contents, the curator at the time, G.Tudev, secretly took action to rescue the objects of Danzanravjaa’s legacy before their destruction could take place. Books, theatrical costumes, artworks, and religious and personal items used by the Noyon Khutagt, ultimately saving 64 wooden chests-out of a total of 1500. The crates remained hidden until 1990 when, with end of socialist rule in Mongolia, Tudev’s grandson Altangerel dug up the objects and founded the Danzanravjaa Museum. The museum preserves and displays Danzanravjaa’s original artistic works and literary manuscripts, along with his books, religious items, theatrical costumes, personal possessions, and similar objects illustrating his life and work. There are over 300 poems, over 100 long and short songs, 1 volume of philosophical writings, 10 volumes of plays, other writings on various Buddist rituals or pujas both in Mongolian and Tibetian, as well as a number of drawings.

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